Cricket Directory - Cricket In
The Ball campaign
Warne and Bessie
over Betfair cricket ads, by Natasha Robinson-
27th Dec 2008
Nine Network has caused a furore for allowing
online betting agency Betfair to advertise during
the Boxing Day Test, with campaigners furious
that the plugs -- including one by cricket legend
Ritchie Benaud -- expose children and teenagers
Vision head Tim Costello and South Australian
senator Nick Xenophon said yesterday they were
shocked to see Betfair's strong presence on advertising
billboards at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
Costello, who was at the MCG yesterday, said he
was "very worried" about the potential
for children who viewed the Betfair advertising
to go home and gamble online without their parents'
got families and kids here," Mr Costello
said. "Of course gambling is part of life,
but I think when it's a family cultural event
like the Boxing Day Test, the advertising is inappropriate."
said he was particularly concerned at the way
Benaud had quoted Betfair's odds during his commentary,
broadcast live around the nation on the Nine Network
truth is we know that gambling addiction breaks
up families, causes crime and comes at a huge
social cost," Mr Costello said. "When
it's a family event like the cricket, when it's
being broadcast live and kids are listening to
it, it is overstepping the mark. It's inappropriate
certainly for kids at a family event."
Xenophon, who was elected as a South Australian
senator at the last federal poll largely on an
anti-gambling platform, described the online gambling
world as the "wild west" and called
on the Rudd Government to impose regulations on
gambling such as Betfair has the potential to
deliver the next wave of problem gamblers,"
very little regulation in relation to advertising.
Gambling advertising ought to carry with it warnings,
and we ought to be looking at restrictions similar
to those that apply to cigarettes and alcohol."
Xenophon agreed with Mr Costello that the ability
for online betting agencies to advertise at the
cricket threatened the Boxing Day match's family-friendly
status. "It's a shame for the great game
of cricket that it's been reduced to just another
event to have a punt on," Senator Xenophon
said. "It diminishes the great game of cricket."
publicity officer did not return calls yesterday.
Xenophon said he had concerns that online betting
on sporting matches could expose sports to corruption
and match-fixing. A spokesman for Betfair last
night declined to respond to the criticisms made
by Mr Costello and Senator Xenophon, but the agency
has strongly argued in the past that it has safeguards
in place to guard against corruption, the risk
of which is increased because punters have the
chance to bet on a team's loss as well as a win.
tipped off the Australian Football Federation
last week that Socceroos Kevin Muscat and Craig
Moore, as well as Melbourne Victory midfielder
Grant Brebner, had bet on soccer matches, in breach
2000, South African captain Hansie Cronje was
banned from cricket for life after admitting he
took bribes from bookmakers to fix games.
Shane Warne and Mark Waugh were fined by the Australian
Cricket Board after being offered inducements
to give pitch and weather reports on Australia's
tour of Pakistan and Sri Lanka in 1994.
is a bat and ball sport played between two teams,
usually of eleven players each. A cricket match is
played on a grass field (which is usually roughly
oval), in the centre of which is a flat strip of ground
22 yards (20.12 m) long, called a pitch. At each end
of the pitch is a set of three parallel wooden stakes
(known as stumps) driven into the ground, with two
small crosspieces (known as bails) laid on top of
them. This wooden structure is called a wicket. A
player from the fielding team (the bowler) bowls a
hard, fist-sized cork-centred leather ball from one
wicket towards the other. The ball usually bounces
once before reaching a player from the opposing team
(the batsman), who defends the wicket from the ball
with a wooden cricket bat. The batsman, if he or she
does not get out, may then run between the wickets,
exchanging ends with the other batsman (the "non-striker"),
who has been standing in an inactive role near the
bowler's wicket, to score runs. The other members
of the bowler's team stand in various positions around
the field as fielders. The match is won by the team
that scores more runs.
has been an established team sport for hundreds of
years. It originated in its modern form in England
and is popular mainly in the present and former members
of the Commonwealth. In the countries of South Asia,
including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka,
cricket is the most popular sport. It is also a major
sport in places such as England and Wales, Australia,
New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Bermuda, and
the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which
are collectively known in cricketing parlance as the
West Indies. There are also well established amateur
club competitions in countries as diverse as the Netherlands,
Kenya, Nepal and Argentina, among others; there are
over one hundred cricket-playing nations recognised
by the International Cricket Council.
sport is followed with passion in many different parts
of the world. It has even occasionally given rise
to diplomatic outrage, the most notorious being the
Basil D'Oliveira affair which led to the banning of
South Africa from sporting events. Other examples
include the Bodyline series, played between England
and Australia in the early 1930s, and the 1981 underarm
bowling incident involving Australia and New Zealand.
The aim of the batting team is to score as many runs
as possible. A run is scored when both batsmen successfully
move to their respective opposite ends of the pitch
(wicket). (The batsmen will usually only attempt to
score runs after the striker has hit the ball, but
this is not necessary.) Runs are also scored if the
batsman propels the ball to the boundary of the playing
area (six runs if the ball reaches the boundary without
touching the ground, otherwise four runs), or if the
bowler commits some infringement.
aim of the bowler's team is to get each batsman out
(this is a wicket, or a dismissal). Dismissals are
achieved in a variety of ways. The most direct way
is for the bowler to bowl the ball in such a way that
it evades the batsman's guard and hits the stumps,
dislodging the bails. While the batsmen are attempting
a run, the fielders may attempt to knock the bails
off either set of stumps with the ball before the
batsman nearer to that set of stumps has reached the
crease. Other ways for the fielding side to dismiss
a batsman include catching a struck ball before it
touches the ground. Once the batsmen are not attempting
to score any more runs, the ball is "dead"
and is bowled again (each attempt at bowling the ball
is a ball or a delivery).
game is divided into overs of six (legal) balls. At
the end of an over, the batting and bowling ends will
be swapped, and the bowler replaced by a member of
the fielding side. The two umpires also change positions
at this time, and sometimes the fielding positions
out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in
the team's lineup. The innings (singular) of the batting
team will end when the tenth batsman is given out,
since there always must be two batsmen on the field.
When this happens, the team is said to be all out.
(In limited overs cricket the innings end either when
the batting team is all out or the predetermined number
of overs are bowled.) At the end of an innings, the
two teams exchange roles, the fielding team becoming
the batting team and vice versa.
team that has scored more runs at the end of the completed
match wins. Different varieties of the game have different
definitions of "completion"; for instance
there may be restrictions on the number of overs,
the number of innings, and the number of balls in
each innings, etc.
Main article: The result in cricket
If the team that bats last has all of its batsmen
dismissed before it can reach the run total of the
opposing team, it is said to have lost by (n) runs
(where (n) is the difference between the two run totals).
If however, the team that bats last exceeds the opposing
team's run total before its batsmen are dismissed,
it is said to have won by (n) wickets, where (n) is
the difference between the number of wickets conceded
in a two-innings-a-side match, one team's combined
first and second innings total fails to reach its
opponent's first innings total, there is no need for
the opposing team to bat again and it is said to have
won by an innings and (n) runs, where (n) is the difference
between the two teams' totals.
all the batsmen of the team batting last are dismissed
with the scores exactly equal then the match is a
tie; ties are very rare in matches of two innings
a side. In the traditional form of the game, if the
time allotted for the match expires before either
side can win, then the game is a draw.
the match has only a single innings per side, then
a maximum number of deliveries for each innings is
often imposed. Such a match is called a limited overs
or one-day match, and the side scoring more runs wins
regardless of the number of wickets lost, so that
a draw cannot occur. If this kind of match is temporarily
interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical
formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often
used to recalculate a new target score. A one-day
match can be declared a No-Result if fewer than a
previously agreed number of overs have been bowled
by either team, in circumstances that make normal
resumption of play impossible - for example, an extended
period of bad weather.
Laws of cricket
For more details on this topic, see Laws of cricket.
The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket,
which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket
Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations.
Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular
games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change
them to deal with different circumstances. In particular,
there are a number of modifications to the playing
structure and fielding position rules that apply to
one innings games that are restricted to a set number
of fair deliveries.
Players and officials
For more details on this topic, see Cricketer.
A team consists of eleven players. Depending on his
or her primary skills, a player may be classified
as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team
usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four
or five specialist bowlers. Teams nearly always include
a specialist wicket-keeper because of the importance
of this fielding position. Of late, the role of specialist
fielder has also become important in a team. Each
team is headed by a Captain who is responsible of
taking the major decisions in the field.
player who excels in both batting and bowling is known
as an all-rounder. One who excels as a batsman and
wicket-keeper is known as a wicket-keeper/batsman,
sometimes regarded as a type of all-rounder. True
all-rounders are rare and valuable players; most players
focus on either their batting or their bowling.
For more details on this topic, see Umpire (cricket).
Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire
(the field umpire) will stand behind the wicket at
the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate
on most decisions. The other (the square leg umpire)
will stand near the fielding position called square
leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and
assist on decisions for which he or she has a better
view. In some professional matches, they may refer
a decision to an off-field third umpire, who has the
assistance of television replays. In international
matches an off-field match referee ensures that play
is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the
For more details on this topic, see Scorer.
Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer
is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify
that the official scorers are to record all runs scored,
wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled.
They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and
to check the accuracy of the score regularly both
with each other and, at playing intervals, with the
umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other
matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which
the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such
as averages and records. In international and national
cricket competitions, the media often require notification
of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often
keep tally for broadcast commentators and newspaper
journalists. The official scorers occasionally make
mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be
corrected after the event.
The Melbourne Cricket Ground during the 1992 Cricket
The playing field
For more details on this topic, see Cricket field.
The cricket field consists of a large circular or
oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions
for the field but its diameter usually varies between
450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds,
a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is
known as the boundary. (Credit:
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